The Cocaleros are the Coca farmers who have either displaced miners or low-income families in Bolivia as well as Peru. In Bolivia, the social, as well as union movements, tends to be well organized, and they have the political prowess. Evo Morales rose through the Cocaleros organizations ranks and attained the leadership of the federation. The central aim of the Cocalores organizations is summoning for a government that would amend the constitution in Bolivia. The written law would ensure the representation of all Bolivians regardless of their ethnic or cultural backgrounds, hence, provision of equal rights to all Bolivians. Before his election as the president in 2006, Evo Morales was a coca producer, and he was much against the government policies to eradicate Coca production in Bolivia. However after his election, he has to balance the interest of the Coca producers who elected him and the international community. For instance, they tried to campaign for the depenalization of Coca from the list of narcotics in Vienna convention. The Bolivian government has also convinced the Coca producers to uphold human rights by restricting the voluntarily reducing the amount of Coca produced as well as limiting its production to authorized areas only.
Additionally, the Morales presidency has significantly affected the Coca production as well as trade in Bolivia due to the policy that his government has put in place. The Coca production has drastically reduced in Bolivia due to the reduction of the area authorized to Coca production and also policies to uphold human rights. His election to the presidency signified the importance of coca production in Bolivia since the Cocaloeras had to elect one of their own to the top and take control of the Coca production and trade policies in the government. He signified the unity of the Bolivians since the previous administration initially neglected the cocaleros.
Risking It All
La Bestia is used to refer to trains that operate a network of freight in Mexico to the United States of America. A journey in these trains is considered tough since the trains are not designed to be passenger trains. Hence, they are not installed with panoramic windows; they do not have seats or even a roof that can protect the passengers from scorching sun or rain. These trains are mainly intended to transport grains, scrap metals, and corn. The undocumented immigrants who board them sit back on the pine of the train to avoid being knocked off. The journey on the La Bestia takes time maybe a week or several months hence, necessities, for instance, water is inadequate. Some the La Bestia riders have suffered physical injuries, and others ended up dead either by falling off the train or getting stuck on the wheels as they try to board when the train is in motion. The central aim of the illegal immigrants on these trains is to cross over to the United States of America and attain a better future that they would have in Mexico.
The undocumented immigrants arrive in the United States on these trains they face several challenges, for instance, the United States is not a multilingual country hence, most of them do not know how to speak English. They also have the challenge of raising their children in the new and unfamiliar culture.
The vigilantes in Mexico are criminal groups who take the law into their hands as a way of trying to prevent crime as well as punishing individuals without lawful procedures. The primary objective of having these vigilantes was to protect the innocent citizens from the gang violence that is more predominant in Mexico. The vigilantes were fighting the drug cartels as well as other criminal groups that were harassing innocent citizens. Recently, the vigilantes existence has been seen as a new form of lawlessness since they are demanding for quotas and linking up with rival cartels.
Snow of the Andes: Peru
There has been the shift in the role of Peru in illegal drugs trade since their involvement has threatened to weaken their economy. This has resulted to Peru adapting anti-drug policies, for instance, eradication of coca production. Authorities in Peru have been facing several setbacks in the fight against illegal drugs trade, for example, the rise in organized crimes that come along with extortion as well as massive corruption within the Peru authorities who collaborate with the drugs cartels.
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