Considering the Objective of the study and outcome variables, was the study design optimal? Why or why not?
The main objective of the study was to investigate whether the addition of a citric acid/trisodium citrate (CA/TSC) mixture before extrusion increases iron absorption in humans from FePP-fortified extruded rice. From this study, the results indicated that Fractional iron absorption was significantly higher from CA/TSC-extruded meals (3.2%) than from No CA/TSC (1.7%) and CA/TSC solution (1.7%; all P, 0.05). However, there was no difference from the FeSO4 reference meal (3.4%). The fact that there was a significant increase in the uptake of iron after the addition of trisodium citric is evident that design of this study was optimal.
The Authors discuss strengths and limitations of their analysis. Are there any additional limitations not already mentioned? Of those limitations mentioned, are there any that severely impact the study quality?
One of the limitations was the fact that the consistent meals used comprised of insignificant amounts of PA. This is dangerous since it is a significant inhibitor when it comes to the uptake of iron. Despite the fact that iron is known for having a low concentration of iron, they also have a low PA concentration. Although rice meals tend to have lower PA contents than other cereal-based meals; this was the opposite during the experiment because the concentration ended up being high. Also, the study did not consider the sensory characteristics of the rice that was used. This is the reason the concentration of PA became a limitation to the study.
Using the Quality Criteria Checklist (handed out in class and posted in the Course Documents folder, QCC), how would you rate the quality of this study (+, - or 0), and what is the major reason for your quality grade?
It is a positive study because it has fulfilled several questions in the checklist.
What was the study design used by the researchers? Describe what this means what are the pros and cons of a design like this? If you were him, youwould do the same thing?
The study design included the extraction of FePP-fortified rice with CA/TSC solution that was added after cooking and before consumption (CA/TSCsolution), and 4) non-extruded rice fortified with a FeSO4 solution was later added after cooking and before consumption (reference). Iron absorption was calculated from erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes 14 d after administration. In in vitro experiments, there was an assessment of the soluble and dialyzable iron from rice meals in which CA/TSC was added at different preparation stages and from meals with different iron: CA: TSC ratios. Basing on the information provided, this was a descriptive study design. This was the kind of design when the information was collected without any manipulation. Thus, implying that the study was effective and the results obtained from this study were reliable. The consistency in the results that were extracted from the study, this is a remarkable design that should be applied in other experiments for reliable outcomes.
What is the main takeaway of this study (in other words, why should we care?)? Do you agree or disagree with the authors conclusions? Why or why not?
In the study, it was concluded that the bioavailability of iron was double when CA/TSC was extruded together with FePP directly into fortified iron. The results obtained attained the main objective of the study. Thus, the main thing that we should put into consideration is how CA/TSC doubles the intake of iron.
1. How was Iron absorption assessed in this study? How did the researchers take care of accounting for the differences in iron absorption d/t body iron status?
The iron absorption was the main objective of this study, and this is the reason the researchers were keen on the amount of iron that was absorbed in the process. To determine the amount of iron that was absorbed, the determined the differences before the addition of CA/TSC and after the addition of CA/TSC. The differences in iron were used to determine the amount of iron that was absorbed, which enable them to reach a conclusion.
What are your thoughts on the premise of the study?
Basing on the design, the procedure and the results that were recorded from the study, it is evident that the premise of the study was well organized, and the researchers were determined in attaining the stated hypothesis.
According to the study explain the video experiments?
The vitro experiment was prepared to determine the rate at which iron can dissolve.
Summary of the results
There was the fractional absorption of iron initially, but this absorption doubled with the addition of CA/TSC extruded meals. However, in the videosolubility, there was high CA/TSC in the extruded rice compared to the rice that did not contain CA/TSC. However, the solubility was high when both CA and TSC was added in the extruded rice, and this is the reason the abruption increased at the same time.
How Dr. Paul prepared the label extruded rice grain? If you were him you will do the same?
The preparation of extruded iron (57FePP) was completed by Dr. Paul Lohmann GmbH KG. This was made from the element that was rich in iron.(95.8% 57Fe enrichment; Chemgas), and he used the scaled-down process as used for the synthesis of the commercial compound. The long-grain was mixed with the rice flour weighing 323g that was mixed manually with 2.69g of isotopically labeled iron and Zinc Oxide. Later on, this mixture was mixed in Kenwood Limited KM410 mixture before it was divided into two different patches, which were 0.11g anhydrous CA and 3.04g of TCA dehydrate before water was added. Although the process was long and one must be keen in observing the elements that should be used in the process, I think this is the best method that I can also apply.
The finding of the study
The bioavailability of Iron nearly doubled when CA/TSC was extruded with FePP into fortified rice, resulting in iron bioavailability comparable to that of FeSO4. The high absorption of iron was attributed to in situ generation that consists of soluble FePP citrate moieties in the process of extrusion and cooking since it has b close physical proximity of FePP and CA/TSC that was extruded from the rice matrix. Thus, it was concluded that the addition of CA/TSC before extrusion nearly doubled iron absorption from FePP-fortified rice.
Summarize the paper on one page?
The deficiency of iron among the children is one of the major problems given the importance of iron in the body of an individual. This is due to the occurrence of diseases like anemia that occur due to lack of iron in the body. As a result, different experiments have been performed to determine the absorption of iron into the body by the use of fornication of foods. The main aim of the paper was to determine the absorption of iron when citric acid or trisodium citrate mixture increased the intake of iron in humans from the extruded rice grains. The study was performed where the date of is on absorption was determined before the addition of citric acid and after the addition of citric acid on the extruded rice. In the process, extruded FePP-fortified rice that contained CA/TSC solution was added after cooking and before the intake of (CA/TSC solution). The non-extruded rice that was fortified with a FeSO4 solution was later added after cooking and also before the consumption (reference). After this process, the rate of iron absorption was determined from erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes 14 d after administration. After determining the rate of absorption, it was concluded that the rate of iron bioavailability almost doubled when CA/TSC was extruded with FePP into fortified rice
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