Q1. Research problem and solution
According to the researchers, there are several heavy metal ions which pollute drinking water. Such metals have been proved to cause health complications to people or other animals. The activity is geared towards testing those particular ions such as sulfides that are the heavy metals which could pose life threats when found as contaminations in drinking water. The tests entail several methods in which these ions can be collected or removed from the water. The report, therefore, will include the properties of such heavy metal ions by taking into account the structure of a sulfide material K2xMnxSn3xS6 where (x=0.50.95) (KMS-1). All the features including its excellent ability to absorb strontium ions will also be discussed.
Q2. Approaches towards tackling the problem
Earlier on precipitation methods for collecting sulfide ions were used. However, such methods were not able to reduce the level of concentration of such heavy metal ions found in drinking water way below limits accepted for consumption. The inorganic ion-exchange constituents like zeolites or clay are bound to suffer as a result of low selectivity properties or weak affinities for binding with heavy metals and thus were also wrongly used. Mineral sulfides like FeS2 happen to possess dense layouts and thus are not suitable for heavy metal ions adsorption-use. This is also because their ability to carry out such functions is limited by oxidation effects of its surface. As a result, several substances have been scientifically tested to be able to remove the Hg2+, Pb2+, and even Cd2+ from both waste and drinking waters. Also, novel sorbents are developed through the functionalizing of clays and other materials like:
This functionalizing activity is done with the presence of a thiol group. The resultant materials will, therefore, display high capabilities of metal ion loading. They will also portray excellent selectivity and even binding ability for Hg2+. On the contrary, when one material misses, they exhibit very low selectivity capacities for heavy metal ions. Another important element is the mesoporous carbon added to thiophene functional groups. This stuff happens to be able to absorb mercury effectively. Then, the Fe3O4 nanoparticles with a humic acid coating have the capability of removing Hg2+, Pb2+, Cd2+, and Cu2+.
Q3. About the KMS-1 formula
The sulfide material is known as K2xMnxSn3xS6(x=0.50.95) (KMS-1) is necessary for the absorption of strontium ions. The KMS-1 has the potential to remove heavy metals such as mercury, cadmium, and lead from drinking or waste water. It's selective capability will enhance the combination with these metal ions to reduce them to a concentration that is below the standards set by the government as safe. As a result of such property, KMS-1 is a suitable decontaminant for a variety of heavy metal ions. The material has strong MS bonds that will bind to heavy metal ions. With its layered structure, KMS-1 will ensure that fast ion-exchange via kinetics will happen with the intercalated K+ ions.
Q4. Powder X-ray diffraction data
The exchanged material for the Powder X-ray Diffraction shows that there are layer contractions after the ion exchange process. This is because the size of Hg2+ is small as compared to that of K+. There also happens to be a strong covalent Hg-S bond formed. PXRD process for Pb2+- shows that two phases have spaces within their interlayers. The Cd2+ will, however, replace the K+ ions together with the Mn2+ ions within the layers. The elemental data of the EDS analytically shows that the ion-exchange product of KMS-1 together with Cd2+ produces an average formula which is Cd1.8Sn2.1S6. Also, there was no Mn detected in the whole process.
Q5. Experimental Measurements.
The exchange capacities of Hg2+and Pb2+ as calculated are 377(15) mgg1 and 319 mgg respectively. The Kd values for both Hg2+and Pb2+ are in the range of 3.501043.90105mLg1, and 1.291051.40106mLg1 in a particular manner. Cd2+ data exchange-equilibrium had a high correlation coefficient of 2~0.91 as shown in the Freundlich model. Next, the average Cd2+ values uptake indicating saturation of KMS-1s sites of exchange is given as 329 mgg1. All values of KdCd portray a significant level of dependency on the concentration of cadmium. On the contrary, large KdCd values were obtained from the initial levels. The extremity of KdCd shows that it has an affinity for Cd2+.
Q6. Driving force for the preferences
KMS-1 is unstable under extreme condition of acidity. The regeneration process of the material of exchanged won't, therefore, be possible. By using a different approach, we would be able to test whether the materials would be considered as waste without alternative treatment. This procedure will thus be appropriate for mercury recycling into elemental forms
Q7. Hard-Soft Acid-Base Theory Application
Through KMS-1, a comparison can be made concerning the efficiency of absorbing materials. Several parameters about the applicability of heavy metal ions are therefore presented. KMS-1system can eliminate heavy metal ions like Hg2+, Pb2+, and Cd2+. The system shows a high adsorption capacity for Cd2+. Also, KMS-1 is crucial in the absorption of Pb2+ from acidic properties of around the pH~3 to alkaline solutions.
Vardhan, V. (2017). PEARSON'S HARD SOFT ACID BASE (HSAB) THEORY. Adichemistry.com. Retrieved 28 March 2017, from http://www.adichemistry.com/inorganic/cochem/hsab/hard-soft-acid-base-theory.html
Academy, K. (2017). Applications of Hard-Soft Acid-Base Theory. Retrieved 28 March 2017, from https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/mcat/physical-sciences-practice/physical-sciences-practice-tut/e/applications-of-hard-soft-acid-base-theory
Lemire, J., Harrison, J., & Turner, R. (2017). Antimicrobial activity of metals: mechanisms, molecular targets and applications. Retrieved 28 March 2017, from http://www.nature.com/nrmicro/journal/v11/n6/fig_tab/nrmicro3028_F1.html
LoPachin, R., Gavin, T., DeCaprio, A., & Barber, D. (2017). Application of the Hard and Soft, Acids and Bases (HSAB) Theory to ToxicantTarget Interactions. Retrieved 28 March 2017, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3288258/
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