This theory is not based on rational actions of the consumers but rather focus on the impulse behavior. External stimuli are the drive for impulse buying, and thus it doesn't rely fully on traditional decision making.
Motivation Need Theory
This theory suggests that consumer's behavior to satisfy their needs is based on a priority system (Duensenberry 47). These priorities are in order of importance, and they range from safety, love, physiological, self-actualization and esteem.
Reasoned Action Theory
The analysis behind this theory is based on the importance of already existing attitudes in the resolution of the consumers. The foundation of the theory suggests that consumers act on a behavior depending on their intention to receive or create a particular outcome.
Models of Consumer Behavior
This model makes an assumption that the consumer is a part of the institution known as society. The society influences the consumer and in turn the consumer also affects it in its path of development. The interactions between the consumers and all the sets of the community may play a part in influencing his/her behavior to buy.
This model suggests that with limited purchasing power, a consumer will allocate his/her expenditure over various products at certain prices in a way that utility will be maximized. The primary drivers are price, income effect, and substitution effect.
This model tends to focus on deeper human behavior and feelings. The model is connected to personality which is intensely driven by a set of complex, deep-seated motives. These motives are dictated by ego, identity and super ego.
One of the primary factors that influence changes and trends in consumer behavior is culture (Sheth et al. 23). Hospitality managers can study the cultural changes to identify priority and taste of consumers. These studies can allow them to adapt suitably so as to create a competitive advantage in the market being that it is deeply rooted in the core of every society.
The social factor has a significant influence on consumer behavior. Hospitality managers can take a keen look at the social trends within the community that will help them identify the changes in taste and trends of consumer behavior. These include reference groups, family and different roles that consumers play in the society.
There are personal factors that hospitality managers can study to identify changes and trends in consumer behavior. The age and life-cycle stage, occupation, economic situation, lifestyle and personal concept of consumer are essential to hospitality managers.
Source of motivation, perception, learning, beliefs and attitudes of consumers are critical in identifying changes and trends in consumer behavior. A deep research on these can help the hospitality managers identify consumer trends and behaviors.
a) Marketing Campaigns
Advertisements have proved to be of great influence on consumer behavior. Hospitality businesses have used market campaigns as a means to shape the consumer perspective about an individual product or service.
Once a customer has made a purchase with a business for the first time, the company must act in a way that will make the consumer come again. This trend may be achieved through maintaining a good reputation as well as offering after sales services.
Convincing consumers to subscribe to new products in the market can be challenging (Peter et al. 73). Therefore, business entities can influence the consumer behavior by providing a more appealing product brand with which the consumer can identify. This act can help in developing confidence among consumers.
Convincing consumers to be loyal to product and services of a given hospitality business can be hard. Therefore, providing adequate and clear information as well as maintaining the standards of the business is essential in ensuring that consumers gain much confidence in related products and services. In effect, it creates brand loyalty
The basic concept of buying and selling in business districts is majorly controlled by the dynamic reaction of consumers to various products and services in the market. A prosperous hospitality business must take into account the changes and trends in the market regarding consumer behavior. The models and theories of consumer behavior help a hospitality manager who operates in a competitive market setting to undertake proper research work concerning the market forces influencing demand and supply. Forces that influence the consumer behavior are essential for a hospitality manager being that it helps the management to know the preference and taste of the consumer. Satisfying consumer needs largely depends on how deep a hospitality business identifies and responds to consumer needs. It helps in market invention and innovation which healthy for a business operating in a competitive business district. Being that human wants cannot completely be satisfied, new products must be brought up. This challenge can be so rampant in a liberal market. Ensuring consumer loyalty is a recipe for a successful hospitality business.
Duensenberry, James Stemble. Income, saving, and the theory of consumer behavior. (1949).
Peter, J. Paul, Jerry Corrie Olson, and Klaus G. Grunert. Consumer behavior and marketingstrategy. London: McGraw-Hill, 1999.
Sheth, Jagdish N., Banwari Mittal, and Bruce I. Newman. Consumer behavior and beyond.NY: Harcourt Brace (1999).
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