Law Research Paper on Sexual Harassments and Molestation

2021-06-17 22:58:08
6 pages
1608 words
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University/College: 
Harvey Mudd College
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Literature review
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Alternative Hypotheses (H1)

Male sex offenders who target female minors and adults in their criminal activities are motivated by power, sexual pleasure, psychopathy and anger.

Null Hypothesis (H0)

There is no likelihood that male sex offenders are motivated by power, sexual pleasures, anger and psychopathy in the execution of crimes.

Research questions

Broad Question

What motivates male sexual offenders who target minor and adult females?

Specific questions

To find out how male physical prowess aid in sexual violence against minor and adult females

To find out why gender roles and position of women in the male dominated society makes them vulnerable to sexual harassments

To find out how money and poverty interlink to play a role in female sexual harassments

Literature Review

Rape and any other sexual harassment are a severe and too frequent crime worth all the efforts to eradicate. Not only do they harm the victim, but the effect is also far reaching to the society in general as it significantly affects the moral fabric. Sexual harassment contributes to a social, emotional and political environment in which women physiologies, lives, experiences and realities are improperly restrained. Traditionally, sexual harassments have served as a painful reminder of how a culture that disregards aggression of power fosters callous oppression at the expense of women independence. This extensive and expansive analysis seeks to identify the differences between male sex offenders who target minors and those who target adult female. As such, the study shall review the motive and the mindset that may necessitate the acts of sexual violence

According to Johnson et.al (2008), an average of 35% of the female population aged between 16 and above experience sexual abuse with the rates of partner violence ranging from 9% to 40%. Sexual assault in this circumstance range from being physically forced to have sexual intercourse against the will and being forced to perform degrading human acts. Feminist place unequal power relations between men and women through gender role, reproductive and unpaid works, material resources such as dowry as key to heightened cause of both classes of violence (True, 2012).

Additionally, National Crime Prevention (2001) reports that gender gaps have a vital role to play in the sexual abuse against women. As such, traditional gender attitudes either held by women are associated to a greater extent to acceptance of sexual assault. It is further shown that girls between 10 and 20 years exhibit high tolerant to gender-based sexual violence (National Crime Prevention, 2001). To compound to these findings, Flood and Pease (2006) reported that children exposed to sexual abuse either as eye witnesses when male are likely to carry on with the attitude to adulthood while the female is likely to live believing that it is the way of life.

Male sexual violence is linked to traditional belief on masculinity and gender role (Sleath and Bull, 2009). Women have hence viewed as sex submissive and passive in the male dominated society. With this regard, sexual victimization reinforces women violently and sexually assaults the women who should be under their protection. Cases of sexual violence against women cuts across different religions and class boundaries (Hattery, 2009 & WHO, 2002). From these results, it can be realized that societal related gender roles and cultural practice act as a factor to both minor and adult-related violence.

In both cases of minor and adult female sexual offenses, most males bank on their physical prowess to subdue and defile the women (Richardson & Hammrock, 2007). As a result, most violent and nonviolent sexual offenses perpetrated by men can be related to behavioral genetics, psychology, and socialization. Thus, according to Ward (2006), integrated theory of sexual offense shows a temperament and the need to seek basic human needs such as sexual interactions which can be genetically inherited. Ward (2006) further links gender-related vulnerabilities as a true effect of brain developments that result to sexual aggression through neurologic functions.

Modernization and economic growth can be attributed to increased incidences of sexual violence that cut across all the ages. Such modernizations have brought about cultural changes and behaviors that have been farfetched. According to Traved (2010), the changing cultural values brought about by globalization and technology has heightened the transformation of new norms.

Ohlin (2006) study done in India to know the increase of sexual violence against minors, discovered that child pornography that is available on the various media platforms is one of the many reasons why males in the society see no wrong in sexually assaulting women. About the change of norms, Mehta (2010), reports that women who are likely to put on revealing clothes are more apt to be sexually assaulted by the male counterparts. Efforts have been made to sensitize women in different parts of the world to have decent clothing to reduce sexual assaults because of lust.

In his book on how Non-Governmental Organizations have failed to understand the complex issues of male instigated sexual violence in some Indian community, Bradley (2006), reflected that male who sexually defile women show some form of patriarchy in their identities and are bound by pressure to exercise their dominance over women. It is further reiterated by Tichy et al. (2009) when they alluded that patriarchal systems accompany men and females from their birth and further influence their perception towards women. As such. Most men tend to believe that women should be submissive to all their demands physical or emotional.

With regards to young female sexual molestation, poverty is a cause and effect of male sexual violence. According to Lamb et.al (2007), their studies show that adolescent mothers with older partners came from relatively low social status compared to their counterpart on the same age. Sexual molestation of young girls is partly driven by material things and prestige that those older counterparts are likely to give them (Higgisnson, 2009). As a result of this, men use their financial status to subdue young children. It is very unlikely with adult females who are likely to be driven by other factors.

In addition to poverty, many girls who come from a home with customary incidences of sexual and physical abuses, and neglect among other issues are likely to be victims of sexual molestation (Elstein, 1997). Consequently, there are some families that parents have weak bonds between their children, if for instance, they are girls, preying men are likely to offer them both parental care and eventually molest them. Most young female in a legal relationship have difficulties in conforming to behavioral theory. Their early sexual practice is coupled with psychological problems after the sexual escapades (Bingham, 2006).

The motive to sexual aggression whether physical or any form of coercion is borne out of the desire to have a sexual experience (Hampton, 2005). In an analysis of most male violence that involved young women, (Koss, 2000) realized that most of this violence occur to victims who are in their reproductive age bracket of 12 and 44 years. However, there are incidences of multiple sexual molestations that require deep understanding to address them adequately. Furthermore, the sexual motivation for men and the subsequent desire to dominate and control the sexuality of their mate is firmly integrated into the male psychology as a sex-specific species (Thornbill, 2004).

In summary, motivation of sexual violence is motivated by a lot of factors that interplay. Male sexual violence from the past research as discussed can be owed to the position of women in the society and the gender roles that women are given within a particular society that makes them not only submissive but susceptible to sexual harassments and molestation from the male (Sleath & Bull, 2009). Poverty and money are great actors of female sexual violence more so among young girls who have fetish for good and expensive lives. The male providers take advantage of their situation to sexually molest them (Higgisnson, 2009& Lamb et.al, 2007). Growth in the world technology scope that has given rise to access to child pornography has made the young children more vulnerable to sexual molestation.

References

Bingham, C. (1996). Longitudinal adjustment patterns of boys and girls experiencing early, middle, and late sexual intercourse. Developmental Psychology, 32, 647658.

Elstein, S. G., et.al. (2007). Sexual relationships between adult males and young teenage girls (Final Report). Chicago, IL: American Bar Association, Center on Children and the Law

Flood, M., and Pease, B. (2006) The Factors Influencing Community Attitudes about Violence Against Women: A Critical Review of the Literature. Melbourne: Victorian Health Promotion Foundation.

Hampton HL. (2005) Care of the woman who has been raped. N Engl J Med. 2005;332:2347

Hattery, A. J. (2009). Intimate partner violence. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.

Higginson, J. G. (2009). Defining, excusing, and justifying deviance: Teen mothers' accounts of statutory rape. Symbolic Interaction. Ontario

Johnson et.al (2008). Shame, blame, and community: Justice responses to violence against women. American Psychologist, 55, 1332-1343.

Koss M., P (2000). The women mental health agenda: Violence against women. Am Psychol. 2000; 45:37480

Lamb et.al. (2007). Ruling Passions: Sexual Violence, Reputation and the Law. Buckingham: Open University Press.

Mehta, P.S. (2010). Gender Based Violence in India: Long-term Trends. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. Vol 25 (9) pp. 1594-1611

National Crime Prevention (2001) Young People & Domestic Violence: National research on young peoples attitudes and experiences of domestic violence. Canberra: Crime Prevention Branch, Commonwealth Attorney-Generals Department.

Ohlin, J., (2006) Delhi Indiens Valdtaktshuvudstad. Sveriges Radio. Available from: http://sverigesradio.se/sida/artikel.aspx?programid=1602&artikel=5402348

Sleath, E., & Bull, R. (2009). Male Rape Victim and Perpetrator Blaming. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 6, 969-988.

Tichy et.al. (2009). What sexual offenders tell us about prevention strategies. Child Abuse and Neglect. Oxford University

True, J. (2012). Rape: Challenging contemporary thinking. London: Willian Publishing.

Thornhill, N., W (2004). The evolutionary psychology of human rape. Ethol Sociobiol. 2004;4:13773

Trivedi, L. (2010). Women in India, ch.8 pp.181-208. In: De Votta, N., Understanding Contemporary India. (eds) 2 nd ed. Boulder, CO, USA: Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc

Ward, T.(2006). Theories of sexual offending. Chichester, UK: Wiley

World Health Organization (2002). World report on violence and health. Geneva: World Health Organization

 

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