Comparing and Contrasting the Male and Female External and Internal Sexual Anatomies

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The issue of comparing and contrasting the male and female sexual anatomies has always been a fascination to most. While growing up, the observable secondary sexual characteristics were welcomed with a mixture of excitement and fear in more or less equal proportions. This paper is going to expound on the key points of both male and female external and internal sexual anatomies.

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During conception, it is the sex chromosomes that determine the gender of the offspring. Whereas males are a product of both X and Y sex chromosomes, females are conceived when two X sex chromosomes fuse. However, the observable sexual characteristics are as a result of sex hormones which carry coded messages between the organs and somatic cells. In males, the main sex hormone is the testosterone while in females the sex hormones include estrogen and progesterone.

The difference in the genitals between the males and females comes about as a result of these sex chromosomes. The Y chromosome in males encodes a Testis Determining Factor gene. This gene initiates the conversion of the ovotestis into a functional testis. The testis then secrets the Antimullerian Factor that prevents the development of the Mullerian duct system which constitutes the female genitalia. Meanwhile, the testosterone hormone is responsible for maintaining and development of the male Wolffian duct system and hence, the male genitalia.

Females do not possess the Y chromosome; therefore, the ovotestis enhances the development of the Mullerian duct system which eventually becomes the female genitalia. Once the external sexual structures are formed, they are responsible for the secretion of hormones. The testes produce the testosterone while the ovaries produce the estrogen and progesterone hormones.

In males, the testosterone stimulates the secondary sexual characteristics such as:

Deepening of the voice

Broadening of the shoulders

Maintaining healthy muscle mass, strength and stamina.

A deficiency in the same causes fatigue, low libido and irritability. In females, progesterone and estrogen hormone is responsible for:

Maintaining pregnancy

Neuroprotective functions

Bone strengthening

Sustaining cholesterol levels

Females have more hormones as compared to men and an imbalance of the same brings about mood swings.

The external and internal differences in the sexual anatomies in males and females play a vital role in determining human sexuality. Human sexuality refers to the manner in which sexual sensations are expressed as well as matters relating to intimacy in human beings. The biological aspect regards human sexuality as a means through which children are conceived and the passage of lineage through generations (Hock, 2007). Psychologically, it denotes the expression of love between persons of same or different gender. Ultimately, human sexuality determines a persons sexual philosophy as a sexual being. This essay will also explore the different aspects of sexual philosophy such as sexual identity, needs, desires, and goals as well as the individual sexual rights and the role they play to the satisfaction of ones sexual life.

Sexual Identity

Generally, sexual identity refers to the perception of oneself with regards to whom one is attracted to sexually or romantically regardless of gender. The foundation of sexual identity is usually based on ones own feelings and desires (Bradley, 2007). It is distinguished from the sexual orientation which prescribes sexual or romantic attractions towards persons of the opposite or same sex or both. The main point of focus is ones own conceptions about themselves. Therefore, people adopt a sexual identity that connotes their own self-perception as a sexual being regarding sexual orientation.

As people become sexually active, most of them take up a sexual identity that coincides with the sex that was assigned to them at birth. However, there are a significant number of people whose sexual identity does not necessarily match their sexual orientation. Also, sexual identity is not permanent and therefore, it is capable of changing throughout a persons life. Due to this, it may not always coincide with a persons sexual behavior or biological sex. Therefore, the development of a definite sexual identity is a psychological process that is attained after a substantial social and personal struggle as well as personal doubt.

Developing a sexual identity as, say, a lesbian, gay or bisexual is a challenging course. However, each individual has the autonomy to identify their own personal sexual preferences, especially during adulthood. Since only the individuals themselves can access their inner feelings and desires, they are responsible for making fitting decisions for themselves, ones which satisfy them (Meyer & Northridge, 2007). One can, therefore, come out and identify himself/herself as a homosexual, heterosexual or even refrain from being specific regarding their sexual identity. This aids the development ones own sexual philosophy that will guide them in making sexual choices.

Sexual Needs

Sexual needs are feelings produced during the stage of adulthood through the interaction of biological drive, cognitive aspiration and psychological motivation experienced by a person. The need to satisfy one's sexual needs mostly springs from motivation. This is best understood by considering one's sexual identity, and the reasons for ones specific sexual behavior. Coupled with ones sexual anatomy, it helps to identify the place of sexuality in human nature. For most people, their sexual needs usually drive them to develop their own sexual behavior which soon becomes a normal part of their lives (Meyer & Northridge, 2007). Despite this, their sexual identity may tend to remain undisturbed as one's sexual identity does not normally coincide with their sexual behavior.

Every human being possesses psychological needs. As such, a persons needs to satisfy these psychological needs in order to maintain their mental health and stability. Sex can be considered a psychological need that is triggered by ones sexual anatomy. However, the pleasure that one derives from engaging in sexual activity is the actual need in this case. The need for sex may be narrowed down to three psychologically fundamental needs for connection, self-esteem, and autonomy. As sexually active beings, people will always prefer meeting these needs in a manner that leaves them happy and satisfied depending on their own determined set of sexual philosophy (Soble, 2008).

Sexual Desires

Sexual desire may be described as a state of motivation or exhibiting interest in sexual activity. It is the drive that prompts a person to engage in sexual activity as an active sexual being. It is an event that may be triggered by a persons internal or external anatomy and cues. This is in most cases produces an explicit sexual behavior. Typically, sexual desires are aroused by an individuals imagination or their perceptions of another person whom they may find attractive. These sensations depend on the sexual philosophy that one has developed as well as their sexual orientation. It is also hinged on the integration of ones inter-psychic, biological as well as interpersonal complexities.

A persons sexual desires are greatly hinged on the sexual identity, which represents their perception of themselves. Therefore, sexual desires may either be responsive or spontaneous in nature and may also be expressed positively or negatively. In addition, the intensity of the desire is contingent to the desired person or object. In as much as the desire is a biological need that causes one to become open to sexual experiences, one does not simply engage with any person since attraction plays a significant role in a persons sexual desires (Soble, 2008). It is therefore limited to ones own philosophy of sex and may also be tied to the status of ones own chromosomes as well as hormones.

Sexual Goals

The satisfaction that a sexual being hopes to achieve when developing a sexual philosophy makes most of their sexual goals. They act as the drive that prompts a person to exhibit different kinds of sexual behaviors. A sexual being therefore, has the freedom to explore and identify their befitting sexuality which they believe will guarantee them a happy sexual life. In this case, a persons sexual anatomy plays a big role as it mostly depends on a persons sexual identity.

Individual Sexual Rights

Sexual rights encompass aspects regarding gender identity, gender expression, sexual orientations as well as sexual relations. Further, it may include the rights to seek, receive and impart information regarding sexuality. In essence, it gives a person the autonomy to choose their preferred philosophy in choosing a sexuality that they wish to take up. As such, one possesses the right to choose their preferred partner and engage in consensual sexual relations hoping to satisfy their sexual needs and desires (Meyer & Northridge, 2007).


In light of the above, it is evident that the development of ones own sexual philosophy is vital. Through the various aspects involved in sexual philosophy such as sexual identity, needs, desires goals and rights, one is able to gain comfort and accept their sexuality. This will aid them to have the ability to make the right choices themselves without causing harm to anyone else. It also creates awareness concerning the different sexual groups thereby crafting respect for the diverse sexualities. Most importantly, a defined sexual philosophy gives an individual the personal choice and responsibility for their sexual lives, allowing them to do what they consider best for themselves.


Bradley, H. (2007). Gender. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Hock, R. (2007). Human sexuality. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

Meyer, I., & Northridge, M. (2007). The health of sexual minorities. New York: Springer.

Soble, A. (2008). The philosophy of sex and love. St. Paul, MN: Paragon House.

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