Factors Caribbean Overseas Students Perceive Influence their Academic Self-Efficacy
In the article, Factors Caribbean Overseas Students Perceive Influence their Academic Self-Efficacy, the researchers utilized grounded theory design to investigate the factors that affect the academic self-efficacy of Caribbean students studying in the United States universities and the emerging themes from their perceptions of variables affecting their academic self-efficacy (Edwards-Joseph & Baker, 2014). The grounded research design is the most appropriate for this study since little was known about the phenomenon (culture) being studied. Therefore, it provided a means of understanding research participants in their cultural context.
The participants were selected from a population which comprised of Carribean overseas students studying in United States universities. Seventy-two Carribean students, 44 men, and 28 women were chosen to participate in the study by use of purposeful sampling strategies (Edwards-Joseph & Baker, 2014). Purposeful sampling technique is critical for this study since it helps the researcher to collect useful data and information that would have been impossible to collect using probability sampling techniques, which needs access to lists of populations. In this study, it is not possible to access a population of Carribean overseas students since they are scattered in many United States universities.
The instrument that was used in the collection of data in this article was a 22 question demographic questionnaire which was used to gather data on participants demographics and self-efficacy beliefs. It was important to use this instrument it enabled the researchers to collect data on the primary variables (self-efficacy and culture) of the study. The participants culture can be easily identified using demographics.
The researchers observed ethical guidelines in conducting this study. Before conducting the study, the researchers sought the approval of the university's board. Ethical approaches to study ensure that the safety and well-being of the subjects are guaranteed. The study has a clearly stated purpose and objectives. This study also addresses a real problem (academic self-efficacy) that affect many educational outcomes hence the study is of immense benefit to the educational fraternity. The researchers are experts in the field of psychology, and thus the research is authoritative. Lastly, this research is of high quality since it incorporates quality references to support the study. One of the challenges of this study is study is the use of purposeful sampling which limits representativeness of the sample. In spite of this limitation, the research was of high quality.
In-Service Teachers Self-Efficacy, Professional Development, and Web 2.0 Tools for Integration
In the article, In-Service Teachers Self-Efficacy, Professional Development, and Web 2.0 Tools for Integration, Pan and Franklin (2011) used a web survey design to investigate the relationship between teachers self-efficacy and the integration of Web 2.0 tools in the United States. A web survey design was appropriate for this study because it allows for ease of data gathering in an expansive country like the Unites States.
The participants for the study consisted of a sample of 559 in-service teachers selected through stratified random sampling. This sampling strategy is important because it reduces human bias and allows for representativeness of the sample. For data collection, the researchers used Web 2.0 tools integration instrument (WTII) to measure the frequency of use Web 2.0 tools in classrooms. The instrument had a reliability of .65. Also, Web 2.0 tools integration self-efficacy instrument (WTISEI) was used to measure instructors self-efficacy in using Web tools in teaching. WTISEI had high reliability of .98 (Pan & Franklin, 2011). It was important to use this istrument because it was developed by experts in the field of computer technology and hence a valid measure of use of Web 2.0 tools in classrooms.
The researchers adhered to research ethics when carrying out this study. First, they did not falsify data but used valid and reliable data to collect data on the variables of interest. Therefore, he adhered to the principle of honesty in scientific communications. Honesty is important because it preserves research integrity. The article is of high quality because of certain reasons. First, the source is authoritative because it is primary research work with quality references. Second, it addresses an important issue (use of technology) in 21st-century learning. Moreover, the researchers used quality questionnaires in data collection and adhered to ethics of research. Because of the reasons mentioned above, I will retain this source for my literature review.
Academic motivation in post-secondary students: Effects of career outcome expectations and type of aspiration
In the article, Academic motivation in post-secondary students: Effects of career outcome expectations and type of aspiration, the researchers employed quasi-experimental research design to examine the impact of career outcome expectations and aspiration on academic motivation (Domene, Socholotiuk, & Woitowicz, 2011). The quasi-experimental research design is important because it allows research to proceed where it is impossible to conduct true experiments for ethical reasons.
The participants for the study comprised of 380 students recruited using recruited using electronic and physical advertisements. The researchers used several measures to collect data on different variables. The Academic Motivation Scale was used to measure participants motivation for engaging in programs of study. This instrument was chosen to assess academic motivation because it has a high reliability of .92 and .87 for intrinsic subscale and extrinsic sub-scale respectively.Secondly, McWhirters Vocational Outcome Expectations scale was used to measure participants career outcome expectations. The measure also had the good reliability of .83 (Domene, Socholotiuk, & Woitowicz, 2011). The researchers observed research ethics when conducting this research. Researchers observed strict adherence to ethical guidelines for research was realized by collecting data using valid and reliable instruments instead of falsifying data.
The research article is highly authoritative for the following reasons: It is a primary research article which is supported by quality references. The article is also well organized, with clear research purpose and research hypotheses. The instruments used to gather research data are also of high quality. Despite the above-stated strengths, the article has some limitations. First, the sampled used comprised of undergraduate students hence the findings of the study cannot be generalized to other populations. Second, there was an uneven distribution of males and females in the sample which limits interpretation of results about sex. Moreover, the use of a single item indicator to measure science, technology, or math careers jeopardized the reliability of the measure.
Parental Engagement in Childrens Education: Motivating Factors in Japan and the U.S.
In the study, Parental Engagement in Childrens Education: Motivating Factors in Japan and the U.S., Yamamoto, Holloway, and Suzuki, (2016) utilized longitudinal study research design to find out the determinants of home- and school-based maternal involvement in education in Japan and the United States at the second-grade level. A longitudinal study is appropriate for this study since it allows for changes in participants characteristics over time to be easily tracked. It also allows for easy testing of a causal relationship.
The researchers enrolled 116 Japanese and 121 U.S. mothers with children attending preschools to participate in the study. The sampling strategy was convenience sampling. This sampling approach is important because it enables the researcher to gather data and information that would have been impossible if probability sampling techniques were used (Yamamoto, Holloway, & Suzuki, 2016).
To address the research questions, the researcher gathered data using several measures. Maternal self-efficacy was measured using parenting self-efficacy scale developed by Banduras guidelines for the development of self-efficacy scales. In developing the scale, the researchers also consulted experts in the field of psychology. Therefore, the scale has high validity. Additionally, the scale has a high reliability of .93, thus produces consistent results. Maternal role construction scale, which had a Cronbach's reliability of .83, was used to collect data on maternal responsibility for helping a child learn a particular skill. Teacher invitations scale, a = .64, was used to gather data on parent-teacher interaction while homework engagement scale, a = .81 was used to collect data on the level of involvement of the mothers in their childs homework. Lastly, cognitive engagement scale, a = .64., was used to capture data on maternal engagement in childrens cognitive and intellectual activities (Yamamoto, Holloway, & Suzuki, 2016).
The researchers were guided by research ethics when conducting this research. For instance, research integrity was preserved by ensuring that valid and reliable instruments were used to collect participants data. Some of the strengths of the article include quality references and instruments. However, the use of convenience sampling limits the generalizability of research findings and is a major limitation of the study. Another limitation of the study is the failure of researchers to gather data on childrens responses to maternal engagement. Because of these limitations, I will not retain the source for my literature review.
Resources of Mathematics Self-Efficacy and Perception of Science Self-Efficacy as Predictors of Academic Achievement
In the article, Resources of Mathematics Self-Efficacy and Perception of Science Self-Efficacy as Predictors of Academic Achievement, the researcher employed descriptive research design to investigate if mathematics self-efficacy resources and science self-efficacy beliefs on academic performance (Kaya & Bozdag, 2016). The descriptive design is beneficial because it allows researchers to acquire a lot of information through description.
The participants comprised of 698 students, from sixth to eighth grades, enrolled in a public secondary school in Izmir (Kaya & Bozdag, 2016). The sampling technique was not explicitly stated, but because the researcher chose a specific proportion of students from sixth, seventh, and eighth grade to participate in the study, it can be inferred that probability sampling was employed. Probability sampling is important because it reduces human bias in research.
The researchers used two measures to gather data on study variables. First, The Perception of Science and Technology Self-Efficacy Scale was used to assess participants self-efficacy beliefs. Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis methods, the instrument was found to be valid. Its Cronbachs alpha values for internal consistency was reported to be .82 and .83 indicating that the measure is reliable. Second, The Resources of Mathematics Self-Efficacy Scale was used to find out whether students have mathematics self-efficacy resources. This measure of self-efficacy was found to be valid and reliable with Cronbachs alpha values for internal consistency of between 0.80 to 0.94 (Kaya & Bozdag, 2016). It was important to use these instruments because they are valid and hence provide an accurate measure of the construct being studied.
Kaya and Bozdag (2016) observed ethical guidelines o...
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