Shift Work and Job Burnout Among Hotel Industry

2021-05-11 20:46:40
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3.1 Hypotheses

Hypothesis is a statement of prediction to be proved right or wrong after a research has been conducted. The researcher had two hypotheses. The null hypothesis for this study was:

HO: There is no association between shift work and job burnout among hotel industry

Which was tested against the alternative hypothesis:HA: There is association between shift work and job burnout among hotel industry

The purpose of the hypothesis testing was based on following two basic principles: one of them was formulation of two mutually exclusive hypothesis statements that had all possible outcomes. The other one was the testing of these can lead to a researcher either accepting or rejecting the other. However, always strives to reject the null hypothesis (Jankovic, E. M. 2010).

3.2 Methodology

Target population

Population is entire group of individuals, events or objects with some observable characteristics. The target population of this study included workers under shift system. Study sample size that the researcher established was 154 respondents. These respondents worked in hotel industry under shift system (Jankovic, E. M. (2010).

Study designA descriptive cross-sectional design was used in this study. This design was chosen because it gives accurate measurements of population, characteristics and attributes. It is also relevant to provide facts and opinions of individuals. Descriptive cross-sectional design gives a representative subset of the entire population under study. The study utilized quantitative research technique. This design was useful in collecting data at one point in time from a sample selected to represent a larger population. This design was chosen because the researcher sought information from a large population over a short period (Menard, S. W. 2008).

Sampling methods and procedure.A non- probability purposive sampling technique was used to select the study area. The hotels were purposely selected because of the researcher had an interest with only workers who work in hotel industry. The variables were specifically targeting the workers in a hotel industry and so the researcher had to use the method than any other. Thereafter a simple random sampling was used to select the clients. This was characterized by the fact that the probability of selection was the same for every case in the population. Simple random sampling was a method of selecting 154 units from total population such that every possible sample of size had an equal chance of being drawn (Hektner, J., et al., 2007).

Inclusion criteria

Homogeneous selection of subjects was done. Specific variable that is shift work was under study and it was more likely to show an effect in the burnout among hotel employees. Therefore, one inclusion criterion was a specific population of employees who worked in hotel industry under shift system.

Exclusion criteriaExclusion criteria was applied to subjects which met the inclusion criteria although they were excluded because they could not complete the study hence reducing confounding the results. All workers who did not work under shift system.

Study variables

Independent Variable is a factor that contributed to job burnout. The factor is shift work.

Dependent Variable, in this case is burnout because it is a subject to change.

Data collection instrument and procedure

A structured questionnaire was used. The instrument was designed using simple language English that was easily understood by the respondents. It is an instrument that had series of questions for the purpose of collecting information from respondents. The structured questionnaire did not have sections but had questions running from 1 to 20.

Pre-testing of research instrument

For the purpose of making questionnaire valid, pilot study was used to refine the questionnaire design and identify errors, which was apparent to the population concerned, for example, meaning of words. The questionnaire was pre- tested with 20 respondents from hotels who were not included in the study. After the study, few amendments were done on the questionnaire and standardization of interview patterns so that the interviewers would ask the same questions in the same manner.

Data processing, analysis and presentation.

Data collected from questionnaires was processed by organizing all questionnaires, checked completeness and accuracy. The incomplete questionnaires and those that did not make sense were removed. Thereafter the data was coded through Microsoft excel before entered into the computer statistical program for analysis. The data was used as a scale of measurement with the use of frequencies and percentages for analyzing each research objective as well as correlation to assess the relationships between dependent and independent variables. Findings were presented inform of tables and figures. Since numbers could not speak for themselves, the research interpreted the figures by attaching meanings to the data (Whitaker, T. B. 2010).

3.3 Measurement of variables

Validity of the selected data can be enhanced by doing a pre-test. Validity refers to the degree to which results obtained from data analysis actually represent the studied phenomena. A pre-test of the data collection tools will be done on the study population. At least 20 respondents from hotels who were not included in the study. After the study, few amendments were done on the questionnaire and standardization of interview patterns so that the interviewers would ask the same questions in the same manner.

3.3.1 General Demographics Information

A nominal scale was used in the structured questionnaire where classification was done. Where responses were categorized. Pre-test was done to ensure that the questions asked during the research would generate the required data.

3.3.2 Burnout (BMI)

To avoid threats to internal validity, researcher carried out a pre-testing to overcome any changes in responses on the dependent variable that is a function of having been tested previously. To add on that, selection of participants, using simple random method, were everyone was given an equal chance of being selected. This avoided any factor that would create groups that are not equivalent at the beginning of the study again despite controlling internal validity it also controlled external validity. This method enhanced control of variables simultaneously as it can also control unknown factors.

Measuring responses on burnout, the researcher used a likert scale involving 5 point scale on which respondent accord depending on the level of agreement. The questions were standard and the researcher would ask the same questions to each and every one. This would enhance reliability. The researcher made use several scales. To begin with is ordinal scale. The use of the ranked orders did not bring out measurement differences between the responses. Another scale used was interval scale and therefore the ranks brought up the difference in measurement. Finally, the researcher made use of nominal scale, where the responses were categorized.

3.3.3 Shift work (SSI)

Measuring responses on shift work, the researcher used a likert scale involving 5 point scale on which respondent accord depending on the level of agreement. The questions were standard and the researcher would ask the same questions to each and every one. This would enhance reliability. The researcher made use several scales. To begin with is ordinal scale. The use of the ranked orders did not bring out measurement differences between the responses. Another scale used was interval scale and therefore the ranks brought up the difference in measurement. Finally, the researcher made use of nominal scale, where the responses were categorized. The researcher conducted a pre-test exercise to ensure that all ambiguities with the research tool that is the structured questionnaire were cleared.

To avoid threats to internal validity, researcher carried out a pre-testing to overcome any changes in responses on the dependent variable that is a function of having been tested previously. To add on that, selection of participants, using simple random method, were everyone was given an equal chance of being selected. This avoided any factor that would create groups that are not equivalent at the beginning of the study again despite controlling internal validity it also controlled external validity. This method enhanced control of variables simultaneously as it can also control unknown factors.

CHAPTER 4: INTERPRETATION

4.1 Participants

In most questions all 154 respondents respondent while in a few, 112 responded. This response rate was favorable for consequent discussion and conclusion of research findings.

All 154 respondents responded to questions on the following data.

32.47% were found to be less than 25 years of age, 27.92% aged between 26 and 34, 22.73% ranged between 35-44 years, 12.99% aged 45-54 while 3.90% were above 55 years. Most of the respondents, therefore, were aged 34 years and below. Most of the respondents, 52.60%, were females while males were 47.40%. 35.71% was made up of those who were single, never married, 25.97% were married, 13.64% were single but cohabiting, 9.09% were divorced, 7.14% were in a domestic partnership, 5.84% were separated while 2.60% were widowed.

4.2 Burnout rate

112 respondents answered while 42 skipped. 55.36% agreed that they were given 4-8 days off per month while 31.25% were given more than 8 days off. 13.39%, however, were given less than 4 days off per month. Majority, 92.86%, agreed that their normal shift pattern included weekend work while 7.14% stated that it did not. Those who felt that their shift rotation was slow rotation (i.e. change every one month) and irregular tied at 34.82%. 30.36% thought that they had fast rotation (i.e. change every one week). 111 respondents felt that afternoon shifts were 35 on averages in a month, 110 claimed that morning shifts were 21 on average while 109 felt that evening shifts were 13 on average.

4.3 Shift Work scale

72.73% agreed to be working in a shift system while 27.27% disagreed. Majority, 27.68% claimed to have been working in shifts between 1 and 3 years while those who had worked below a year followed closely at 19.64%. A further 18.75% claimed to have been working for 7-9 years while 16.96% worked 4-6 years. 8.93% and 8.04% claimed to have been working in a shift system for 10-12 years and above 12 years respectively.

Out of 112 respondents who answered, 60.71% claimed to have a fixed shift while 39.29% did not. Those who had worked for 4-6 years made up the majority at 28.57% followed by 23.38% for 1-3 years. 19.48% had worked for 7-9 years, 11.69% had worked for less than 1 year, 10.39% for more than 12 years while 6.49% had worked for 10-12 years. 29.87% claimed to be in front office, 26.62% were in food and beverages services, 14.29% did housekeeping, 13.64% were in sales and marketing, 9.09% were in finance and account, 4.55% did engineering and 1.95% was in other departments. 31.17% were intermediate, 29.22% were entry level, 25.97% were middle, 9.74% were senior and 2.60% were owner, executive or C-Level while 1.30% had other job levels.

4.4 Relationship

Out of 112 respondents who answered, 36.61% thought that maybe the advantages of the shift system outweigh the disadvantages, 26.79% felt probably not, 21.43% agreed that probably yes. On the other hand, 10.71% felt definitely not while 4.46% agreed to definitely yes.

Following questions related to Emotional Exhaustion, the following data was generated.

26.62% and 22.08% mildly agreed and could neither agree nor disagree respectively that they easily understand how their customers/colleagues feel about things. 17.53% mildly disagreed while 14.29% agreed to the same. 10.39% disagreed...

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