The primary purpose of this paper is to explore the influence of destructive leadership behavior in an organization. As indicated in the literature review, it is evident that destructive leadership behavior is on the rise and it has both negative and positive influences on the organizational operations. For the purpose of this research, the researcher will adopt both the qualitative and quantitative approach (Schensul and LeCompte, 2013, p.4). Therefore, this means that the mixed approach will be utilized to explore the influence the destructive leadership behavior has on the operation of the organization specifically on employee turnover, job satisfaction, and loyalty of the subordinates (Weaver-Hightower, 2014, p.123). Majorly, the research will utilize focused group discussions, literature review, and self-administered questionnaires for data collection. The study will focus on collecting data from subordinate employees so that they voluntarily give information regarding the influence of destructive leadership behaviors among the senior managers in the organization. The methodological approach allows the researcher to have an in-depth study of the research questions, analyze and evaluate the data against the study hypothesis.
Research originated from the natural sciences research such as chemistry, biology, and physics and was mostly concerned with the collection of data that could be observed and quantified in numerical form. This was referred to as quantitative technique. Later on, other researchers investigating on social sciences such as anthropology, psychology, and sociology came with the qualitative methods. The researchers were concerned with explaining human behavior in the environments and the social world (Malagon-Maldonado, 2014, p.126). The researchers encountered difficulty in explaining human behavior in measurable variables. Therefore, the research bases much on the descriptive nature of human behavior but inadequately answers the why and how in the research. Qualitative research centers on explaining the social phenomena in the human environment but partially expands on the reasons why the events happen. Therefore, qualitative research helps one to understand the society where they live in and why things appear the way they appear.
The variables studied in the research are the loyalty of the subordinates, job satisfaction, and employee turnover. Besides, the variables are linked to leadership style, subordinates, colleagues in the job environment, organizational attitude, and work, behavioral and psychological responses. This is for instance in the fact that research has indicated that destructive leadership styles applied by a senior manager have a significant influence on the attitudes, psychology, behavior, employee turnover, and job satisfaction. Besides, research indicates that the kind of leadership style exhibited by the manager affects employee performance, morale on their job, and the general success of the organization. The variables mentioned will be used for the purpose of the research and understanding how the leadership style influences the behavior and attitude of the employees and hence the performance of the organizations. Concerning the mixed method, it will require measuring subjective qualitative encounters for a sample, which will not meet the needs of the study (Leech et al., 2010, p.18). Basing on the objective of the study and the purpose of the survey, there is an urgency to analyze data using logistical regressions and empirical interpretations. The study will also use self-administered questionnaires, focused group discussions and review on other literature on the same topic to gather data.
3.2 Population and Sampling ProcedureThe study aims at collecting data from junior employees in various organizations. The data collected will help in giving a clear picture of the influence of destructive leadership behavior on the performance of the employees. The study will use the simple random sampling procedures to come up with the sample populations of the study. The sampling method will help the researcher to adequately test the hypothesis concerning the destructive leadership behavior influence of employee turnover. Probability sampling methods make sure that each sample unit has an equal chance to participate in the research. Therefore this improves on the validity of the data collected as it limits biases.
The sampling method that was used in the research study was based on the convenient sample technique, also known as the simple random sample or probability sampling method (Chauvet, 2017, p.4). The sample was selected randomly, and each of the population elements had an equal chance of being selected. The simple random sampling is conducted as follow. First is to identify the population or sampling frame. Next, the population elements must be given unique names so that they do not mix up with other elements. The correct and true sample size was determined, and finally, the sample was selected. The simple random sampling was also divided into two main types: sampling with and without replacement. In the sampling with replacement, the element can be selected more than once. In contrast, the sampling without replacement cannot be selected more than one time.
The simple random sampling had both advantages and disadvantages. One of the advantages is that it gives auxiliary information and the sampling processes can be conducted independently. Furthermore, the simple random sampling is also relatively easy to execute and does not require more expertise. In this study, the samples were selected using statistical measures so that the resulting sample size could be more accurate.
However, the disadvantage of utilizing the simple random sampling lies in the utilization of the method requiring a sampling frame. Therefore, this means that if there is lack of a sampling frame, the researcher will not be able to come up with the best sample. Hence, this can lead to an error in the collection of the data which significantly impacts the validity and reliability of the study. Besides, use of simple random sampling technique can result in a higher dispersion which may cost the researcher more.
3.4 Sources Ofof Data
The research used a combination of three instruments as sources of data. The data collection techniques include self-administered questionnaires, focused group discussions, and the use documented secondary sources. The use of the combination of the three techniques maximizes the quality and validity of the collected data and thereby reduces the biases in data collections. The research employs flexible techniques such as the open-ended questionnaires and focused group discussions which are both qualitative. The methods provided the researcher with qualitative data that is stored in a descriptive form.
The researcher will use a self-administered questionnaire for collecting primary data. In this method, the respondent reads the questions and provides answers based on their understanding of the topic. Sometimes, the researcher remains around for clarification of the questions. Self-administered questionnaires are cheaper and simple to administer because the questionnaire can be circulated to many respondents simultaneously. Besides, self-administered questions allow the respondent to ask for guidance regarding unclear questions since the interviewer is always available. On the other hand, the availability of the researcher can invoke the interest of the respondent and therefore give most honest opinions.
Focused group discussions enabled the researcher to collect data from a group of respondents rather than administer a series of questionnaires to a group of individuals at different times. Focus group discussions also are useful in obtaining objective responses from respondent because the facilitator makes the group active and free to deliver information. On the other hand, the method saves more time that would be needed in other means of data collection such as interviews. However, at the same time, focus group discussions cannot be used to collect personal information about the respondents. The researcher convened participants who were all junior employees in various companies. Therefore, the participants were from the same backgrounds concerning their experiences from destructive leaders. The researcher ensured that the participants were both sexes and middle-aged. However, for the validity of the data collected the researcher convened the participants of both genders at different venues and involved different facilitators.
Finally, the study also used the data collected by research institutions on the same topic and the same research questions. The documentary sources helped to keep the researcher on track. The secondary sources from institutions played a vital role in keeping the researcher aware of what to expect in the field regarding the data to be collected. These secondary sources provide ready information in a relatively easy and timely manner. However, the information cannot be reliable and valid because the data collectors had varied data collection methods hence can prejudice the data collected. On the other hand, there are high chances of errors in the interpretation of the data. People comprehend different materials in various ways, and therefore this can result in errors in the data analysis.
3.5 Validity and Reliability The validity of the data collected means the degree of harmony between the measurement and the exact real value of what is researched. The researcher has to use the most reliable and valid method of data collection for the information to be regarded as valid. Besides, reliability plays a role in determining the absolute value of the measured variable and is mostly used in rankings or observation of trends. The validity and reliability of the collected data were enhanced by asking the right questions and finally evaluating the relevance of the collected responses.
Furthermore, the validity and reliability of the research were also improved through conducting a pilot study of the questionnaire as the instrument of data collection. The pilot study was meant to assess the comprehensiveness of the questions contained in the questionnaire. A sample of non-participants in the research was supplied with copies of the questionnaire to review on how well the questions are elaborated to the objectives of the study. Besides, the pilot study also helped in proofreading the questionnaire to avoid misunderstanding of the questions and therefore increase the validity of the information to be collected.
Furthermore, the researcher made sure the participants in the research were aware of the purpose of the research and the impact of the information they were to provide. When the participants in the research are uninformed on the purpose of the research, they will be reluctant to give valid information that reflects the true phenomenon under study. Therefore, they will provide dishonest and insincere information. The researcher further clarified to the participants that the information to provide would solely be used for academic purposes and to arrive at meaningful conclusions about the influence of destructive leadership behavior. This helped the researcher to arrive at valid data because the participants were aware of the essence of participating in the research and the purpose of the research.
Finally, the participants were provided with informed consent. Therefore, the participation of the respondents in the study was purely at their will and no external coercion was used to urge them into participation. Besides, even after the participants entered the study, they were allowed to withdraw at their wish at any stage of data collection. This process facilitated the collection of reliable...
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