In a recent research that was conducted by Deloitte Global Human Capital Trends on 2,500 companies across 90 countries, the researchers found out that most of the companies are facing employee engagement challenges. The conclusion that the research was able to formulate was that; only 13% of employees on a global scale are fully engaged in their work (Anthony-McMann et al., 2016, pp. 7288). The results showed that 26% of the employees are so disengaged in their work that they are highly likely to spread the negativity to their other work colleagues. The Human Capital Institute (HCI) stated that there are financial consequences related to the engagement level of employees at the workplace (Anthony-McMann et al., 2016, pp. 7288). There is a direct relationship between the engagement level of the employee and the financial returns to the organization. For instance, a fully engaged employee will provide a 120% return of the financial investment the company made through the salary they pay the employee. On the other hand, engaged employees provide a 100% return on the companys investment on them, while a partially and fully disengaged employee will provide a 80% and 60% return on investment.
1.2 Problem Discussion
In most organizations, the employers want to know how engaged an employee is to the work that he or she has been provided. It has forced them to regularly conduct annual surveys to determine the engagement level of employees, and ways in which to improve the job duties and activities that will keep the employee happy. However, even though the companies want to know the engagement level of the employees, the Human Resource Department of the company does not want to directly ask them to state their engagement level in the surveys (Brunetto et al., 2012, pp. 428441). The reason for this is that; the employees will most probably fake their results (no employee can admit that he or she is completely disengaged at work). Therefore, the management team is forced to ask questions that are related to engagement constructs. However, by asking questions that are related to employee constructs such as job satisfaction level, the employer will not be able to determine the level of employee engagement in the company.
The employee engagement problem is further heightened by the distraction elements that are available for the employees. Studies show that an average employee will check their mobile phones about 150 times per day. There are other forms of distractions at the workplace such as many emails, conducting regular conference calls, work meetings, and the different social media platforms (Anthony-McMann et al., 2016, pp. 7288). With all these forms of distractions, it is hard for an employee at the work place to fully concentrate on his or her work. It is also harder for the employer to provide an ideal environment where the employee will not be distracted, because in most cases the mobile phone of the employee is the main form of distraction (Brunetto et al., 2012, pp. 428441).
Organization commitment problems have been brought about by work-life balance issues due to the advancement of technology that has led to the breakdown regarding the barriers that existed between work and life (Bersin, 2014, p. 1).For instance, some of the employees who work for more than 50 hours in a week, state that their work schedule affects certain aspects of their lives such as spending time with their families. Therefore, if these employees are allowed to spend more time with their families due to a reduction in their working hours, then the employees will have a higher organization commitment than is the case at the moment (Bersin, 2014, p. 1). Another problem that is affecting organization commitment is precarious employment.
Precarious work or employment is defined as a form of work that is characterized by low wages, lack of benefits, lack of continuity, and even a greater risk of both ill-health and injury. To measure the precariousness level of employment, it is important to assess the level of earnings, the level of employer-provided benefits, the degree of regulatory protection and even the degree of influence an employee has to the labor process at the work area (Bersin, 2014, p. 1). Precarious workers are also described as being vulnerable because of various factors such as the industrial sector in which they are employed in, the size of the enterprise, the nature of their employment contract, and demographic circumstances (Anthony-McMann et al., 2016, pp. 7288). When compared to other employees such as the permanent employees, it is stated that the precarious employees, experience difficulties in the bargaining of their wages (therefore, they receive low wages). Precarious employees have fewer rights than the other employees (permanent employees), for instance, most of them are not allowed to join the labor unions, because; these unions will fight for their rights such as an increase in wages, job security, and an improvement of working conditions. Also, the precarious employees are more likely to be given hazardous jobs that can lead to injuries or sickness than the other employees (permanent employees).
This research focuses on two job groups; employed personnel and self-employed personnel. Using the identified groups, the researcher will try to determine the employees who are more engaged in their work, and provide the appropriate reasons. The researcher will also determine the job satisfaction level, by looking at different parameters, and make a comparison between the two job groups (Brunetto et al., 2012, pp. 428441). It will also be important to assess the type of work, work environment, compensation, and benefits, and work schedule to determine whether they are factors that determine employee engagement and organization commitment of employees based on the two job groups identified (Bersin, 2014, p. 1). A standardized survey will be used to be able to highlight the differences that in both work engagement and organizational commitment between the two professional groups that have been mentioned. The auxiliary purpose of the experiment is to determine various ways in which employees that hold precarious positions at the work place can be made to be fully engaged, to increase their retention level and even financial returns from these types of jobs.
1.3 ContributionThere have been numerous papers that have been written in regards to employee engagement and organization commitment. However, this paper takes a new approach by focusing on how employers can make various contributions in order to increase employee engagement and organization commitment. The survey compares the working conditions, salaries, work challenges, and future prospects from two similar jobs. On one hand, there are shopkeepers who are the precarious employees, and on the other hand there are the entrepreneurs. This research aimed at looking at how various factors affect the employee engagement and organization commitment levels for shopkeepers in Sweden, and how to improve these factors in order to improve the employee engagement and organization commitment levels.
1.4 Research QuestionsWith which means can precarious jobs increase work engagement to become more stimulating?
With which means can precarious jobs increase organizational commitment to become more stimulating?
What is the status of the employee engagement and organization commitment for precarious employees in Sweden?
2. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK2.1 The Theory of Employee Engagement2.1.1 OverviewEmployee engagement can be defined as the process that companies take to realize their strategic goals through the creation of an environment that is ideal for the human resources. In this environment, it creates a work ethic in which the employees can fully thrive in, and therefore become fully switched on regarding the job duties that they undertake (Anthony-McMann et al., 2016, pp. 7288). When the employees of an organization are fully engaged, and fully switched on regarding their job duties, they will provide their best efforts that will have a positive influence in the companys interests. When stated in this manner, it seems like a simple process, and therefore one wonders why most organizations are facing this challenge (employee engagement). Most people might assume that all it takes for an organization to have ful...
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