Nursing: The Philosophy and Science of Caring

2021-05-19 20:08:47
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Nursing metaparadigm is the perspective pointing out the primary focus of interest in a discipline. It explains the manner in which disciplines need to utilize the use of theory, philosophy and concept models. In nursing, metaparadigm comprises four primary elements: person, environment, health, and nursing practice CITATION Jan02 \l 1033 (Kenney, 2002). These ideas are instrumental in nursing theory because they are essential areas in patient care.


A person gets defined in the course of his/her life but does not come into the world predefined CITATION Jan02 \l 1033 (Kenney, 2002). Substantial aspects are making up an individual. The sociocultural, intellectual, spiritual, psychological and biological dimensions of humans and human development stages are delineated since they influence health and behavior. These operations operate in an interdependent, interrelated and interactive way within or upon humans.


Health is not only considered as absence of illness or disease but a state of both mental physical, intellectual and spiritual wellness CITATION Jan02 \l 1033 (Kenney, 2002). This view focuses on the nature of the client in moral, aesthetic, social and physical realms. Health is therefore, relational and contextual, and inherent to conceptualization in a persons approach to stress and coping.


Environment is viewed as the all occurring around patients. In this context, the environment involves the setting of everyday life and the geography of human social experience CITATION Pre10 \l 1033 (Syjongtian, 2010). The environment is therefore not limited to personal relationships, culture, geographical location and mental state. Patients need to be in a conducive environment to enable their recovery.

Nursing Practice

Nursing is referred to as a special skill that a person must acquire in becoming a nurse including technical knowledge, medical knowledge in health care CITATION Jan02 \l 1033 (Kenney, 2002). It allows for connection of concern and care. Lack of compassion would lead to a detrimental effect on the health of a patient.

Nature of Nursing Practice

My Personal Philosophy

My philosophy in nursing is accountability, professionalism, and compassion. Since a nurse is held to high professional standards, they need to have a high level of accountability and adhere to all guidelines, rules, and standards set in nursing professional (Cara, 2003). Nurses should have personal accountability by being competent in their nursing profession. Therefore, having the necessary medical knowledge, they need to carry out their duties with professionalism. Another thing that is certain is that nurses need to be understanding and have compassion. They should be respectful, kind and patient and able to take care of patients despite what their lifestyle or culture demands. They need to give patients a sense of worth and dignity regardless of their religion, economic status, sexual orientation or race.

Comparing my View with Watsons Theory

Watsons caring theory enable one to return to our values and deep professional roots, representing the archetype of a perfect nurse. This means that nurses need to carry out their duties with professionalism. By uploading the Watson Caring theory and my view allow nurses to practice care and compassion to patients and promote their dignity and healing (Edwards, 1997). Applying and promoting caring values is essential in finding the meaning of professionalism in nursing. Thus, caring is efficiently practiced and demonstrated in both theories. Thus, the process of caregiving is important in nursing.

Nature of Caring

Watsons theory

The major elements of Watsons theory are the carative factors, the caring moment and the transpersonal caring relationship. Carative factors honor the dimensions of humans in nursing and the experience of the patients being served. The carative factors involve the following processes: Practice of equanimity, loving and kindness within the framework of caring consciousness (Watson, 2008). Sustaining and enabling the broad belief system of the one-being-cared-for and cultivation of ones transpersonal self with sensitivity and compassion. The transpersonal caring relationship exemplifies a unique kind of patient care relationship depending on the moral commitment of the nurse in enhancing and protecting human dignity. The caring consciousness of the nurse honors and preserve the embodied spirit. It shows the manner in which a nurse should go past an objective assessment, indicating concerns towards the patient (Watson, 2000). Lastly, the aim of a transpersonal caring relationship corresponds to preserving, enhancing, and protecting the persons inner harmony, wholeness, dignity, and humanity. Watson insists that the nurse also need to be aware of her authentic presence and own consciousness of being in a caring moment with patients. Thus, the theory specifies that nursing is concerned with health promotion, illness prevention, caring for the sick and health restoration. Caring is an essential thing to nursing practice in promoting health than medical care.

Beliefs about Human Caring in Nursing

Caring is important and central to nursing. Non-caring leads to a negative persona, which can make patients scared and absence of care may affect patients physically, emotionally and psychologically (Austgard, 2006). Caring promotes positive outcomes for patients as it increases competence and ensures patients are properly assessed. Caring will lead to a good nurse-patient relationship and trust, giving patients self-worth and a nurse will be able to develop and connect relationships by caring (MC Graw, 2002). Thus caring will result in positive results for the patients as it involves creative factors leading to the satisfaction of the needs of patients. Nursing is thus a way of giving back to the society. Providing care aid in the healing process on a therapeutic basis. Without the therapeutic environment, thorough healing is inhibited. Competent, caring need to be incorporated in nursing approach.

Social Purpose of Nursing

Nursing is instrumental in patient care. In all setting, patients deserve care, which is centered on their needs and not what is just convenient for the individuals involved in their care. Nurses need to offer necessary improvements in value, quality and value of care. Nursing, therefore, has a key role in transforming the health care system, creating a value driven, high quality and accessible environment for patients (cara, 1999). Nurses need to remain in touch with the practice, to strengthen the link between practice and research and meet the needs of patients and nursing patients using real situations as the catalyst for developing nursing knowledge.


Nurses need to attend to all the needs of patients. If done in the right manner, a nurse will be sure of providing the best care for patients. The essential elements of Watsons theory help nurses in utilizing and grasping the application of health care in their working environment. Nursing should continue expanding its role and make contributions to the health sector through the development of a foundational health strength and caring healing. By articulating the theories in nursing, I have become confident in the values and beliefs about nursings metaparadigm, nursing knowledge and nursing as a practice. Thus, health promotion, illness prevention, caring for the sick and health restoration are an essential thing to nursing practice in promoting health than medical care.



BIBLIOGRAPHY Austgard, K. (2006). The aesthetic experience of nursing. Nursing Philosophy, 7, 11-19.Edwards, S. D. (1997). What is the philosophy of nursing? Journal of Advanced Nursing, 25, 1089-1093.Cara, C. (2003). A Pragmatic View of Jean Watsons Caring Theory, (under continuing education)

Cara, C. (1999). Caring philosophy and theory for the advancement of the nursing discipline. Closing key note conference. XVI Jornades Catalanes dinfermeria Intensiva, Barcelone, Espagne.

McGraw, M.J. (2002). Watsons philosophy in nursing practice. In M.R. Alligood, & A. Marriner Tomey (Eds.), Nursing theory: Utilization and application (pp. 97-122). Toronto, Canada: Mosby

Watson, J. (2000). Via negativa: Considering caring by way of non-caring. The Australian Journal of Holistic Nursing, 7(1), 4-8.

Watson, J. (2008). Nursing: The Philosophy and Science of Caring (rev. ed.), Boulder: University Press of Colorado.



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