Healthcare-acquired infections are the complications that develop because of the processes involved in diagnosis and treatment of a disease or health condition. The increasing cases of reduced concerns about sterilization and disinfection processes are increasing the number of the nosocomial infections. These contagions occur after a victim has been admitted to the hospital or a few hours after discharge, and about a month in the case of an operation. The increased reported cases ascertain the impacts witnessed in the morbidity and mortality rates as well as increasing the financial strain on both the patients and the hospitals (Revelas, 2012). There is an urgent need for system change that will ensure that the safety of the patient regarding the expected outcomes while under the care of medical practitioners is improved. A regulatory approach to the nursing practices within the healthcare facilities will ensure that the risks that the patients are susceptible to are reduced or eliminated. Succinctly defined and formulated supervisory measures will guarantee competent undertakings in intensive and special care units to minimize the prevalence of the nosocomial diseases. This article outlines a brief account of a supervisory approach to the mitigation of the healthcare-acquired infections as a system change to improve patient safety.
It is essential to note that the healthcare acquired infections emanate from the supportive culture within a hospital setup that is encouraged by some factors. The diseases affect the nature the patients outcomes by affecting the quality of care they are entitled while under medication within the hospital premises. The hospitals usually house many patients whose condition is already at a stale. The numbers of patients who occasionally visit the health centers seek medical attention because of their diverse ailments. The congestion is a source of the strain in the available resources and workforce. Each sick person requires a unique attention, and there exist chances of negligence from the health practitioners because of the mounting pressure. The nurse to patient ration is yet another notion that cumulatively changes the scenario. The chances of professionals willingly or unwillingly misrepresent the expected competence are created because of possible burnout experiences or inappropriate procedure. There are many procedures to be undertaken when conducting diagnosis and treatment tasks. Some of these processes are beyond the normal body protection mechanism (Schumacher et al., 2013). When doctors move from one individual to another, chances of pathogenic transmission are high once inadequate sterilization and disinfection methods characterize treatment process. It is possible to argue that the element of nursing specialization could assist in reducing patient to patient transmission, but it is a vital regard that that doctors and nurses are bound to esteem life, and therefore, they are derived from the need to save as many lives as possible with their acquired skills and competence. The prevalence of the nosocomial infections affects one out of ten patients who visit a health facility (Stone, 2011). Besides, it signifies a lack of a sustainable culture that guarantees competence and adequate care when handling sensitive aspects such as those touching on life.
The nosocomial diseases and infections affect both the adults and children. Both the genders have an equal chance of being infected. The pediatric patients are also prone to these infections. The children are mostly affected by the infection of the bloodstream. The reason for their vulnerability is that their system is not highly developed to fight the contagions without the external boost to the immune system. Pneumonia and urinary tract infections are prevalent among the adults. Methods and the medical procedure used in the treatment of adult urinary complications require special attention and hygiene. Pediatric patients such as infants and youngsters in PICU or NICU are also vulnerable to healthcare acquired infections. About two million individuals in a year are affected by the nosocomial infections in the United States of America. Over 90,000 of those infected end up dying because of the extremity of the complication. The annual increase rate of infection in the USA is about 33% (Scott, 2008). The financial implications of the infections on hospital economy are worth noting. Over the US, $ 28 billion minimum and US $ 40 billion maximum direct costs are recorded in hospitals every year (Scott, 2008). However, the problem is not limited to the United States. Most healthcare facilities are affected by the nosocomial hospital infections that lower the quality of patient outcomes as well as compromising their safety. The treatment burdens associated with these diseases is extremely expensive. Therefore, there is the need for an urgent change that will ensure that the shortcoming is mitigated through nursing supervision mechanisms. It is estimated that 70% of the bacteria that cause the infections have mutated to resistant levels, and, therefore, the treatment process takes time and utilize expensive incentives (Hartmann et al., 2009). The increased expense for the managing the medical facilities and the high cost of healthcare services require a systematic change that is economical but effective.
The prevalence of the conditions patients get in hospitals can be controlled by setting up the supervisory standard and quality measures that will encourage patients' safety. Setting up strategies that will ensure that the medical processes are supervised will guarantee safety if amalgamated with adequate facilities such as the modern equipment and human resource. The notion of supervision has not been fully incorporated into medical practice owing to the costs and complexity of the process. However, the involvement of the health administrators and managers in the process of the nursing activities is associated with improved patient safety. Worth noting is that other sectors of the economy such as the corporate industry have realized how supervision is attached to the potential of profit margin increase. In nursing, there are no clear mechanisms for engagement and sharing of challenges practitioners face in the working environment; therefore, high chances of cumulative burnouts and incompetency that could compromise the in-hospital quality of patient outcomes and safety exist (Nursing Times, 2010). Such forums assist in providing space and time to consider avenues for improving the quality of service and safety while taking care of patients to reduce the rates of the nosocomial infections. Supervisory processes meant to eradicate the hospital-acquired infections require a procedural process. Appropriate supervisory system change is, therefore, essential to assist in reducing risk patients are exposed to from the nursing activities and lower the levels of nurse-sensitive consequences among the ailing. The quality of healthcare provided in hospitals is a national apprehension due to the oath of service the health physicians are bound with while undertaking their obligations. However, supplementary strategies stemming from the external environment will improve the commitment and competence of nurses and eliminate the nosocomial contagions.
The first process of setting up the strategy for supervision involves the brainstorming session by the health administrators and managers. The stage requires a keen and detailed analysis of the causes and circumstances that give rise to prevalent in-hospital acquired diseases. Understanding the causes provides a baseline for best solutions and mitigation measures to be put in place. The administrators should consider all the avenues that contribute to the shortcoming. The management then should start implementing the simple and basic frameworks and policy such as training and refresher seminars to remind the practitioners of the essence of quality and competent healthcare service. Adequate structures should be tailored to the needs of each facility and units of specialization. However, consideration of the available skills and competencies will play a vital role in determining the nature and manner of supervision to be implemented. The supervisory system change should nevertheless be sustainable through continuous support to guarantee constant results and culture in the medical services. Many administrators and manager have failed in building a coherent system and environment in their respective organization because of lack of consistency in change policy implementation, and the healthcare sector is not an exception. Therefore, supervision meant to improve patient safety by reducing their risk to nosocomial infections should be long-term.
Moreover, it is worth to note that clinical and nursing supervision is an aspect of quality upgrade meant to educate and train the practitioners to ensure that a contribution to the augmentation of high-quality services to diurnal practices and activities has been achieved. The approach is as an essential progressive tool that is focused on the delivery of quality nursing care to mitigate the prevalence of nosocomial infections. The problems that are experienced within the nursing profession related to the safety of patients and the nature of the treatment outcomes cannot be ignored. Therefore, for hospital management to curb the effects emanating from the medical activities carried out by nurses and clinicians, it is necessary for administrators to consider supervision models that will assist in reducing the number of patients affected by the hospital-acquired infections (Nursing Times, 2009). Supervision is employed as a tool for corporate and organizational governance since it contributes to the process of improving the quality of output in the respective sectors such as risk management and the accountability of occurrences and events. The multidimensional reflection of the method assures a change of insights and development of the quality of life both for the patients and for practitioners.
In conclusion, it is indispensable to recognize how the healthcare acquired infections originate from the ordinary culture within a healthcare facility setup that is fortified by a number of factors. The infections affect the nature of the patients outcomes by distressing the eminence of care they are permitted to receive while under suppository within the hospital premises. The infirmaries regularly house many patients whose situation is already at a stale. However, clinical and nursing supervision as a proposed system change is an aspect of quality upgrade meant to educate and train the practitioners to ensure that a contribution to the augmentation of high-quality services to diurnal practices and activities has been achieved. The method is as an necessary progressive tool that is engrossed on the conveyance of quality nursing care to alleviate the pervasiveness of nosocomial contagions. Therefore, for hospital management to control the effects originating from the homeopathic activities carried out by nurses and clinicians, it is essential for administrators to deliberate on supervision models that will assist in mitigating the shortcoming.
Hartmann, M., Arefian, H., Vogel, M., & Kwetkat, A. (2009). Economic evaluation of
interventions for prevention of hospital acquired infections: A systematic review. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146381Nursing Times. (2009). An integrated approach to introducing and maintaining supervision: The
4S model. Retrieved from, http://www.nusringtimes.net/nursing-practice-clinical-research/acute-care/an-integrated-approach-to-introducing-and-maintaning-supervision-the-4s-model/5000899.article
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